From Oregon Hikers Field Guide
The only venemous snakes of the northwest are various subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake. They are usually fairly small, 2 feet or less in length. They are normally mottled or striped and coloring ranges from brown or tan to white. Some rattlers have a greenish, olive cast. The key spotting feature for a rattlesnake is the rattle.
Rattlesnakes are venomous snakes and untreated bites are potentially lethal. The risk of snakebite, however, is often exaggerated. According to the FDA, in the entire United States each year, 8000 people are bit by venomous snakes, but only 9-15 victims die. Of course, that doesn’t mean that snakebites should be ignored. Fortunately, it’s usually pretty easy to avoid getting bitten.
According to government statistics, three out of every four snakebite victims are between 19 and 30 years old. 98% of victims are male. 40% of bites occur to people that admit they were playing with the snake and since 64% of bites are in the hands or fingers, maybe even more people were playing with them. In addition, 40% of snakebite victims are legally drunk. It seems obvious that taunting, capturing or playing with snakes is a recipe for getting bitten. “Hey guys, watch this!” is never a good way to deal with a snake.
The key to avoiding snakebite is to avoid snakes in the first place. Here are a few ways to reduce the chance of getting bitten.
- Stay out of tall grass and brushy areas. Give yourself the chance to see snakes first.
- When possible, avoid stepping over logs or large rocks. Hidden snakes might be startled and strike without rattling.
- Always wear good, thick boots to make it more difficult for snakes to bite.
- If you see a snake, leave it ALONE.
- If a snake is blocking your path, take a wide way around, or wait for it to leave on its own.
- Stay out of the striking radius, typically about half the length of the snake.
- If you hear a rattle, slowly back away from the sound.
- Talk to your kids about the dangers of snakes.
What to Do...
- Get the victim away from the snake....Do not attempt to capture or kill the snake....
- Do not attempt oral suction or incising the skin. Suction is not effective.
- If there are immediate, severe symptoms, keep the victim quiet. Activity increases venom absorption. Send for help immediately.
- Start to evacuate all victims at once. To be effective, antivenin is best given within 4 to 6 hours after the bite.... Keep the limb below the heart and clean the bite.
- Use a sling or a splint to loosely immobilize the affected limb.
- If there is no immediate reaction, start to walk slowly with the victim to the trailhead. Sending for help can take longer than walking for help. If evacuation is prolonged, and there are no symptoms after 6 to 8 hours, there probably has been no envenomation.
...Bites without signs of venom injection require only a tetanus shot and care of the bite wounds.
- Use cold or ice...
- Use the cut-and-suck method...
- Use mouth suction...
- Use a tourniquet...
- Use alcohol...
- Use aspirin or ibuprofen...
- Use any suction device...
When self extraction is the only choice...
- calm down if possible and get away from the snake
- clean or sanitize the wound
- remove any constricting clothing, jewelry or items
- cache your heavy gear, and take only the minimum for a UL marathon to hike out
- hike out the easiest way. This might not be the shortest route. Go easy, do everything to avoid exerting yourself, but keep moving.
Another interesting thread to read [portlandhiker.ord thread]